After the Selection of Site, it is advisable to apply Vastu principles and tips to the design of the building. This will ensure a proportionate, aesthetic and beautiful building with the right measurements. The Vastu principle ‘Aayadi – dimensions’ prescribes six formulae to work out the right dimensions (length, breadth and height) of a building.
Though the science of Vastu follows generic rules for the design of spaces, a specific set of six formulae called Aayadi are used to work out the Length, Breadth, perimeter, area and the height of the building. Here, the length and breadth mean the outer measurements of the foundation seen above the ground. The height of the building is considered to be from the bottom of the base to the topmost point of the building. Like the other Vaastu principles, it was necessary that one follows the Aayadi formulae strictly in order to experience positive effects within the building. In fact even today, Aayadi is the only aspect of Vaastu Shastra that is followed in many parts of India.
Aayadi constitutes six formulae Aaya, Vyaya, Yoni, Raksha, Vara and Tithi which are explained below. The remainder obtained by using these formulae determines whether it is a gain or loss. If it is a gain, then the structure is proportionate and stable and the dimensions are right. However if it is a loss, then it means the dimensions are not right and should be suitably corrected.
One can use the Aayadi formulae to check whether the length, breadth and height of the proposed building are in proportion. Accordingly, the dimensions of the length, breadth or height can be corrected.
BREADTH: The Yoni and Vyaya formulae are used for fixing the breadth of the building. If the remainder obtained in the Yoni formula is an odd number, then it is good whereas if it is even, then it is considered bad Yoni. 1, 3, 5 and 7 remainders are considered good Yoni and associated with the directions East, South, West and North, respectively. Therefore depending on the direction the building faces, the corresponding Yoni should be used to fix the breadth of the building/rooms. Also, the Yoni of the first floor should be the same as the Yoni of the ground floor. When an old house is being renovated, then a new Yoni different from the Yoni of the old house should be used for the renovated house.
LENGTH: Aaya, Vyaya and Raksha formuale are used to fix the Length of the building/rooms. Aaya also known as ‘Aadhayam’, means income and ‘Vyaya’ means loss or expenditure. Therefore, the Aaya should always be greater than the Vyaya. Using the Aayadi formulae it has been concluded that for the Aaya to be more than the Vyaya the length of rooms/building should preferrably be 1.5 times the breadth or at least 1.375 times the width. This is why we find that sites are generally not square but rectangular with a Length 1.375 – 1.5 times the Breadth. For example: Sites have dimensions of 40 x 60, 30 x 40 and 50 x 80.
ORIENTATION: The Yoni formula defining the breadth measurement is useful for buildings that are not oriented to the cardinal directions. Vastu Shastra clearly emphasizes the importance of orienting the buildings to the four cardinal directions (North, East, South or West). As far as possible, buildings should not be oriented to the intermediate directions. But in rare situations, if the site faces an intermediate direction, the 1 Yoni should be used for fixing the breadth of the building.
The Scientific Reasoning– The ancients were aware of the power of monsoon winds and other energies (physical and metaphysical) on structures. Scientifically, it was seen that if the 4 faces of the buildings were oriented towards the cardinal directions, they could withstand the impact of these energies and also benefit from them. In fact most religious buildings, palaces, cities, villages and roads of ancient India and many other parts of the world have been found to face the cardinal directions. Examples: the Giza and Great pyramids of Egypt are all oriented to the North. So if it was not possible to orient a building to the cardinal directions, it was important that the dimensions of the building should be such that it can withstand the forces of nature. This is where the Yoni (Breadth) calculation was useful.
HEIGHT: The height of the building can be fixed using the Vara and Tithi formulae. The height of the first floor should not be more than that of the Ground floor. For arriving at the right height of a building, the ‘Proportion’ should also be considered. This has already been explained in the post Vastu Principle Maana Proportion.
The Scientific Explanation: One reason was that, in those days the units of measurement were not uniform in different regions. The units of measurement were Angula (3/4 of an inch) and Hasta ( 18 inches) so that 1 Hasta equals 24 Angulas. However the value of Hasta and Angula were different in different regions. Therefore, by using the Aayadi formulae for fixing the dimensions of a building, the risk of creating disproportionate spaces was eliminated.
Another reason was that these formulae were formulated in order to make it easy for the Architect to create rooms with the right sizes for the correct fit of tiles on roof purlins and roof purlins on rafters and rafters on the walls of the rooms, since in olden days, most houses had tiled roofs with wooden rafters and purlins.
Typically in any wooden roof construction, the inclined roof rafters rest on the lintels/walls/under-purlins and are typically spaced at 18″ or 24″ centre to center or closer. Horizontal roof-purlins are placed on top of the rafters,to which both the top roof tiles and the decorative ceiling tiles are fixed. Since the whole roof system is visible from the inside of the house, care is taken to have neat joints and decorative rafters, purlins and ceiling tiles. So for such precision work it was ideal that the room dimensions be in multiples of the rafter /purlin/tile spacing.
This post about the ‘Vastu Shastra principle | Aayadi – Dimensions‘, explains the six formulae used for fixing the dimensions of a building. The dimensions, Length x Breadth x Height, are related to the form/shape of the building. Read about the different forms of buildings in the post, “Vastu Shastra principle | Chanda – Aesthetics”, here:
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