After Selecting the Site, it is advisable to apply Vastu Principles and tips to the design of the building. This will ensure a proportionate, aesthetic and beautiful building with the right measurements. One of the five Vastu principles called ‘Aayadi – dimensions’ is a guide for designing and planning buildings with the correct dimensions.
The Vastu Principle – Aayadi or dimension prescribes six formulae to work out the correct dimensions (length, breadth and height) of a building. Since Vastu is a science, every guideline is based on logic and scientific reasoning. As an Architect, I have explained these guidelines rationally and scientifically under the following headings, so that you have a choice and can decide what you want to follow or don’t instead of looking at Vastu as a superstition:
What does the Vastu Shastra principle, “Aayadi” mean?
What is the purpose of Aayadi in Vastu Shastra?
Explain the Aayadi formulae?
How does one use the Aayadi formulae?
Fixing the breadth
Fixing the length
Fixing the formula for buildings oriented to the cardinal directions
Fixing the formula for buildings not oriented to the cardinal directions
Fixing the height
Why was it necessary to fix dimensions according to Aayadi in Vastu Shastra?
WHAT DOES THE VASTU SHASTRA PRINCIPLE, AAYADI MEAN?
Though the science of Vastu follows generic rules for the design of spaces, a specific set of six formulae called Aayadi are used to work out the Length, Breadth, perimeter, area and the height of the building.
Here, the length and breadth mean the outer measurements of the foundation seen above the ground. The height of the building is considered to be from the bottom of the base to the topmost point of the building.
WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF AAYADI IN VASTU SHASTRA?
Like the other Vaastu principles, it is necessary to follow the Aayadi formulae strictly in order to build a proportionate building and to experience positive effects within the building. In fact even today, Aayadi is the only aspect of Vaastu Shastra that is followed in many parts of India.
EXPLAIN THE AAYADI FORMULAE?
Aayadi constitutes six formulae Aaya, Vyaya, Yoni, Raksha, Vara and Tithi. The remainder obtained by using these formulae determines whether it is a gain or loss. If it is a gain, then the structure is proportionate and stable and the dimensions are right. However if it is a loss, then it means the dimensions are not right and should be suitably corrected. So this formula is a good guide to decide the correct proportions of a building.
- Yoni is the remainder of Breadth x 3 divided by 8
- Vyaaya is the remainder of Breadth x 9 divided by 10
- Aaya is the remainder of Length x 8 divided by 12
- Raksha is the remainder of Length x 8 divided by 27
- Vara is the remainder of Height x 9 divided by 7
- Tithi is the remainder of Height x 9 divided by 30
HOW DOES ONE USE THE AAYADI FORMULAE?
One can use the Aayadi formulae to check whether the length, breadth and height of the proposed building are in proportion. Accordingly, the dimensions of the length, breadth or height can be corrected as explained here:
FIXING THE BREADTH:
Utilise the Yoni and Vyaya formulae to fix the breadth of the building. If the remainder obtained in the Yoni formula is an odd number, then it is good whereas if it is even, then it is bad Yoni.
- Thus, 1, 3, 5 and 7 remainders are considered good Yoni and associated with the directions East, South, West and North, respectively. Therefore depending on the direction the building faces, the corresponding Yoni should be used to fix the breadth of the building/rooms.
- Also, the Yoni of the first floor should be the same as the Yoni of the ground floor.
- When an old house is being renovated, then a new Yoni different from the Yoni of the old house should be used for the renovated house.
FIXING THE LENGTH:
Use Aaya, Vyaya and Raksha formuale to fix the Length of the building/rooms. Aaya also known as ‘Aadhayam’, means income and ‘Vyaya’ means loss or expenditure. Therefore, ensure the Aaya is always be greater than the Vyaya.
Therefore, by using the Aayadi formulae it can be concluded that for the Aaya to be more than the Vyaya the length of rooms/building should preferably be 1.5 times the breadth or at least 1.375 times the width. This is why we find that sites are generally not square but rectangular with a Length 1.375 – 1.5 times the Breadth. For example: Sites have dimensions of 40′ x 60′, 30′ x 40′ and 50′ x 80′.
FIXING THE FORMULA FOR BUILDINGS ORIENTED TO THE CARDINAL DIRECTIONS:
The Yoni formula defining the breadth measurement is useful for buildings that are not oriented to the cardinal directions. Vastu Shastra clearly emphasizes the importance of orienting the buildings to the four cardinal directions (North, East, South or West).
The Scientific Reasoning- The ancients were aware of the power of monsoon winds and other energies (physical and metaphysical) on structures. Scientifically, it is known that if the 4 faces of the buildings orient towards the cardinal directions, they can withstand the impact of these energies and also benefit from them. In fact most religious buildings, palaces, cities, villages and roads of ancient India and many other parts of the world face the cardinal directions. Examples: the Giza and Great pyramids of Egypt face North.
FIXING THE FORMULA FOR BUILDINGS NOT ORIENTED TO THE CARDINAL DIRECTIONS:
As far as possible, buildings should not be oriented to the intermediate directions. But in rare situations, if the site faces an intermediate direction, the 1 Yoni should be used for fixing the breadth of the building.
The Scientific Reasoning: If it is not possible to orient a building to the cardinal directions, it is important that the dimensions of the building should be such that it can withstand the forces of nature. This is where the Yoni (Breadth) calculation of 1 is useful.
FIXING THE HEIGHT:
Fix the height of the building using the Vara and Tithi formulae. Additionally, make sure that the height of the first floor is not more than that of the Ground floor. For arriving at the right height of a building, the ‘Proportion’ should also be considered. This has been explained in the post Vastu Principle Maana Proportion.
WHY WAS IT VERY NECESSARY TO FIX DIMENSIONS ACCORDING TO AAYADI?
The Scientific Explanation: One reason was that, in those days the units of measurement were not uniform in different regions. The units of measurement were Angula (3/4 of an inch) and Hasta ( 18 inches) so that 1 Hasta equals 24 Angulas. However the value of Hasta and Angula differed in different regions. Therefore, by using the Aayadi formulae for fixing the dimensions of a building, one did not risk creating disproportionate spaces.
Furthermore these formulae were formulated in order to make it easy for the Architect to create rooms with the right sizes for the correct fit of tiles on roof purlins and roof purlins on rafters and rafters on the walls of the rooms, since in olden days, most houses had tiled roofs with wooden rafters and purlins.
Typically in any wooden roof construction, the inclined roof rafters rest on the lintels/walls/under-purlins with a spacing of 18″ or 24″ centre to center or closer. Horizontal roof-purlins prop on top of the rafters, to which both the top roof tiles and the decorative under ceiling tiles are fixed. Since the whole roof system is visible from the inside of the house, care is taken to have neat joints and decorative rafters, purlins and ceiling tiles. So for such precision work it was ideal that the room dimensions be in multiples of the rafter /purlin/tile spacing.
This post about the ‘Vastu Shastra principle | Aayadi – Dimensions‘, explains the six formulae used for fixing the dimensions of a building. The dimensions, Length x Breadth x Height, relate to the form/shape of the building. Read about the different forms of buildings in the post, “Vastu Shastra principle | Chanda – Aesthetics”, here:
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